Navigating through the fast-paced world of social media marketing can be a pain in the butt.
Their resources are valuable and they don’t want to waste any of your time.
Here’s a list of 100 free social media marketing tools that will save you both time and money.
Some are great.
Some are not so awesome.
But they’re all here.
They can be a bit too much to digest at a go, so feel free to bookmark this page before you proceed.
Bonus: I created a free checklist containing 10 useful social media tools not found on this list…plus the experts pick on their favorite tools on each category in this post. Click here to download it right now.
1. Aminstitute Headline Analyzer: This free tool allows you to analyze how effective your ad will be at reaching customers in an emotional way.
2. Optimizely: This company provides A/B testing for headlines across the web on any device. Users can even test whether different variations of images and headlines generate the best results. There’s a free and pro plan available.
3. CoSchedule’s Headline Analyzer: This tool analyzes blog post headlines and gives a quality score than determines the headlines ability to result in social shares. The tool will also provide a quality score that ranks your headline’s ability to increase traffic and add value to your SEO. CoSchedule gives you a 14-day free trial period.
4. Portent: Enter a subject and Portent will generate ideas for social content. Use the idea generator to write blog posts, create memes or develop videos.
5. Hubspot Blog Topic Generator: Fill in three fields with topics you’d like to write about and this blog topic generator will provide a week’s worth of blog titles within seconds.
6. National Day Calendar: Never miss another National Day celebration. Visit the website to check the calendar for upcoming National Day celebrations or sign up for newsletter to receive National Day notices via email.
7. PostCreator: Upload an image, insert a message, then add your logo. PostCreator will generate a brandedimage you can use on your social networks. There’s a free basic plan available.
8. EverPost: EverPost is another great content curating tool, letting you find new stories based on your pre-selected favorite topics.
9. Feedly: Feedly is a news aggregator that can help with content sharing and curating. Feedly compiles news feeds from a variety of sources, allowing the user to customize and share with others. Great for inspiration and keeping up to date with industry news.
10. Storify: Storify allows you to curate content from social media feeds. You can drag and drop Tweets, videos, and photos to create a story you can then embed on your own site. Either create a story using your own content or use Storify to curate user-generated content. Free and enterprise versions available.
11. Buzzsumo: Combines content analytics with influencer identification. Discover the most popular content in your niche and discover who has shared it. Search for influencers via hashtags and keywords, and filter the results by type, such as blogger, journalist or company. Free 14-day trial.
12. Contently: Contently helps brands to create quality content by connecting them to freelance writers, photographers, graphic designers, and editors, with 55,000 professionals currently signed up.
13. Visual.ly: Browse their massive collection of infographics for inspiration, then enlist top-notch talent to create your own high-quality, customized infographic content pieces.
15. Click To Tweet: Provides a link so readers can easily tweet a quote direct from your content, encouraging higher engagement. Simple to use and provides tracking and analytics.
16. Digg Digg: Digg Digg is a plugin by Buffer, adding sharing buttons with counts on your page. Networks covered include Twitter, Buffer, Facebook Share, Facebook Like, Digg, LinkedIn, Google+.
17. Socedo: Socedo is an automated social media lead generation tool. It helps you find your target audience, engage them with one click, and fill your funnel. Socedo discovers the social prospects that match your custom criteria then further qualifies them via predefined engagement workflow.
18. Scoopit: As well as a content automation service, Scoopit is a content curator that you can’t do without. It searches the latest blogs, news releases, posts, social media sites and more for your keywords and presents content in a comprehensive list. You can then post the content to your ScoopIt profile which will also publish the ‘scoop’ across other social networking sites.
19. Pressly: Another tool to consider is Pressly, which makes it easy for brands to create destinations featuring their own, curated and social content. Having a centralized hub for content they want to share is a more effective than using a “shotgun” approach to sharing content on different social networks.
20. Tagxedo: Use Tagxedo to create a word cloud from your web, social, blog or other content. You can use word clouds to showcase both personal and business content.
21. Blog2Social: Blog2Social is a great social media cross-posting plugin as there are no server side installation process to be done. You just have to simply install and activate it.
22. ThingLink: ThingLink‘s fun, dynamic, visual format draws attention to your updates. You can add text or multimedia overlays to any of your photos or images, but what makes this tool more interesting than others is that the results are interactive. Viewers hover over icons to watch a video, listen to an audio file, link externally, complete a poll and more.
23. Babbly: Babbly is an awesome platform of quality content owners. It works as simple as follows: give a share – get a share.
24. Nuzzel: Nuzzel is an easy way to see news from your friends. It has been created to solve the problems of social overload. Use Nuzzel to discover the best news stories shared by your friends on Facebook and Twitter without being overwhelmed or missing anything.
25. Likeable Hub: Get access to thousands of engaging content ideas to share. Share stories with thousands of content ideas & news posts, and measure your growth with success analytics.
26. Prezi: Elegant visual presentations that can be edited and shared in the cloud. Free version allows for public presentations smaller than 100MB. Paid options allow offer more features and space.
27. IFTTT: IFTTT connects the apps you love so they work best for you. The tool is about creating powerful connections with one simple statement: if this then that. IFTTT allows you to make personalized “Recipes” by taking a “Trigger” (the “this” part). The “that” part is then the Action taken afterwards.
28. Quora: Quora lets users ask questions and receive answers. Content marketers can use it to discover what kind of questions their audiences are asking. Use Quora for blogging inspiration – answer Quora questions through a high-quality blog post and you’ve got yourself some content gold.
29. Paper.li: Create your own custom online newspaper featuring articles, photos, and videos from all across the web based on topics of your choosing. Share and promote your online newspaper via social media (sorry paper boy, you’re fired).
30. Tawkers: Tawkers lets users host live web chats. Once the live chat is ended, conversations can be embedded and published on websites.
31. Listly: Create custom lists and have visitors vote on items. Very easy way to create fun, engaging pieces of content that can easily be shared.
32. Rebel Mouse: Rebel Mouse is a digital publishing platform that functions as a social content aggregator, displaying your posted and shared content in a customizable layout. Rebel Mouse is similar to Paper.li, but with more customization.
33. Ubbersuggest: A free keyword suggestion tool that gives you a very healthy assortment of keyword suggestions based on your input.
34. Knowem: Knowem is a handy tool for checking your username (helpful before signing up to loads of social networking sites). You simply enter a user name that you would like to use and it will check availability across 500 sites.
35. BoardReader: Boardreader is a dedicated search engine for content found in forums. You can search for topics or for your own brand to find out which forums you are being mentioned, which you can share with your own forum community.
36. TagBoard: Just search for a hashtag and Tagboard will display the pages and profiles it’s on, whatever the social network happens to be. It’s a great way to visualize how often a hashtag is used, the context in which it’s used, and who’s using it.
37. Back.ly: Back.ly helps to drive traffic back to your site with every link you share by adding your own message to any piece of content. It’s completely free with no limitations.
38. Optimize Book: This editorial calendar includes day to post, topic, targeted audience, keywords and tags, social topics and which social networks to use.
39. Brett Snyder: This simple editorial calendar includes subject, working title, focus keywords, key elements, sources, complementary assets, and promotional strategy.
40. EditFlow WordPress plugin: This tool makes it easy for teams to collaborate within WordPress. Edit Flow gives you custom statuses, a calendar, editorial comments in addition to several other useful features.
41. Canva: Use pre-sized templates to create professional looking social media images. This tool has simple drag and drop features. Choose from hundreds of free stock images and cool fonts.
42. PicMonkey: Edit pictures and designs. Add text to images. Resize an image that’s too large. This tool is fairly easy to use. PicMonkey offers enough free features to make it worth checking out.
43. Recite: A very simple tool used to create quote images in a matter of minutes. Type a quote then choose from the various quote images that are generated.
44. imgflip Meme Generator: Choose from thousands of prepopulated images. Type your caption. Resize the text if you need to and click generate. It’s that simple.
45. Piktochart: The best infographics share a lot of data in a digestible format, but creating one can be daunting. Piktochart simplifies the process by offering free and premium templates and graphics and icons you can drag and drop into your infographic. Creating this kind of visual content is less painful when you can adjust text size, font and color to create a professional, visually appealing infographic.
46. Share as Image: This easy-to-use text photo overlay tool is a social media slammer. Just find an image (or use the built-in stock photo collection for pro uses), hit the Chrome extension tool, and you’ll find an assortment of text overlay options to create a one-of-a-kind compilation.
47. Infogr.am: A sweet tool to help you make snazzy looking infographics in a matter of minutes. While you won’t be able to have ultimate customization, with plenty of graphics to choose from and some great drag-and-drop vector art, it’s a fine place for those who want a simple, high-quality looking infographic. The free version lets you share your infographic and embed it on your website. To download your infographic, you’ll need the paid version.
48. PlaceIt: PlaceIt lets you upload images of your product or website and insert them into high-quality photos. Small image downloads are free, larger files will cost you.
49. Adobe Post: Adobe Post was created to give you a powerful tool to differentiate among the competitors and engage your followers with eye-catching posts. Create stunning social graphics in seconds with it.
50. Skitch: Skitch is a free markup tool for Evernote. Easily add shapes, highlights, and call outs to your photos to create super sharable content.
51. Easel.ly: Easel.ly makes creating infographics easy, so everybody can do it. Think of it like Instagram. You probably don’t have the time or expertise to add creative filters to your photos, so you turn to Instagram to do it for you. Easel.ly is the same way with infographics. Just start with a template and add the statistics, objects, and charts you need. That’s it.
52. Avidemux: This free video editor is designed for simple tasks like cutting, filtering and encoding. Avidemux offers an automation feature.
53. Windows Movie Maker: A free video editor included as part of the Windows Essential package. This software is included with every version of Windows. It’s very easy to learn to use and it has many great features that get the job done.
54. Lightworks: This video editing tool has so many editing features that it’s been used to help produce Hollywood movies. Lightworks Free offers full editing power and export to their preferred upload partner Vimeo at 1080p resolution. The free version has a seven-day renewable license that all users can activate immediately after installation.
55. WeVideo: This video editor provides 5G of cloud storage. Users can publish their video directly to YouTube. WeVideo connects to different social networks so the user can grab video clips. Mobile video editing is also available.
56. PowToon: Powtoon lets you easily create animated videos, which you can then use on your website, YouTube, or share on other social networks. Video content is highly valuable, so PowToon is definitely worth checking out if you want to take a shot at creating informative how-to videos, or a quick explainer video that gives a rundown of your product or service.
57. Ad Parlor: Generate ad mockups so you can see what your ads will look like before you create your campaigns on Facebook or Twitter. Users don’t have to login to use the tool and Ad Parlor allows users to verify specs for all of the ad spaces available on Facebook and Twitter.
58. Banner Ads Creator: This simple tool makes creating ads for YouTube, Facebook and Twitter fast and easy. Users click through each step, choosing the options they want to include. Ads can be created in a matter of minutes.
59. AdCat.io: Allows you to upload a single image, crop as you see fit, and then download the ad creative in perfect sizing.
Tracking and Analyzing
60. Hubspot Marketing Grader: Receive a full report on how your marketing efforts are going. Just add your website address to the form and a report is generated in seconds. This tools gives you a score for social media blogging, SEO, lead generation, mobile.
61. Quick Sprout: This social media tool analyzes your Google Analytics data. The tool analyzes your data and provides a report that will help you improve your content.
62. AdEspresso’s Campaign Rater: This tool helps optimize your Facebook ads. Get a better understanding of your key metrics. Compare your ad’s performance with your industry.
63. Uprank: This advanced research tool analyzes your social media, in addition to your website’s architecture, SEO, user experience, and mobile responsiveness. Uprank generates a digital marketing strategy that includes a list of comprehensive tasks.
64. Google Alerts: Google Alerts is a free and versatile tool that allows you to discover which social sites are driving traffic and conversions, among other things. With Google Alerts, you are notified every time your brand or keywords are mentioned on forums, news sites and blogs. It’s a powerful tool that costs you nothing.
65. SumAll: SumAll is a cross-platform analytics tool that produces attractive charts to help you understand the correlation between your social channels. Daily email updates allow you to keep an eye on top level metrics, and the platform allows you to dive in deeper.
66. Social Mention: A free, real-time platform that allows search and analysis of social media, organized into a single stream. Influence is measured by Strength, Sentiment, Passion and Reach. Covers 100+ social media sites, including Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Google.
67. Cyfe: Sign up for free to create a dashboard that can track a wide range of networks. A wide choice of widgets allows you to monitor networks, accounts and pages. The paid account adds more functionality for $19/month.
68. Brand24: Features a web-based dashboard that shows real-time insights and provides detailed statistics about your content and audience. 14-day free trial, a personal/small business package is $49/month.
69. Twazzup: Search for a brand name, keywords or a hashtag to find real-time monitoring and analytics. Shows top influencers, all recent relevant Tweets, top photos and top links. Basic, but free.
70. Addictomatic: A free, easy to use tool. Simply enter the name of your brand or product, or that of your competitor, and Addictomatic will return results for a variety of sites. Allows customization of the sites shown.
71. Quintly: The free plan allows analytics for 3 Facebook pages, giving you a breakdown of follower and engagement statistics. A simple interface allows you to customize dashboards with your choice of widgets, allowing tracking of a variety of metrics.
72. Tweetdeck: A flexible tool, it allows you to monitor custom timelines, lists and searches, and team accounts. You can set up notifications to ensure you respond in real time to comments or questions. A good starter tool, Tweetdeck is available for free.
73. Fanpage Karma: Covers analytics, monitoring and engagement for Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google+, Instagram and Pinterest. A lot of metrics are offered, including engagement data to help you find the optimal times and types of media to post. You can check one page for free, multiple pages are covered by a variety of prices.
74. HowSociable: Add your social media accounts, or that of your competitors, to receive a score for each platform based on that week’s usage. The at-a-glance data shows which networks are performing well and which need further development. The free version shows metrics for 12 social sites, for $3/month adds a further 24 including Facebook, Pinterest and Twitter.
75. Keyhole: Search for keywords, hashtags or URLs to see a range of metrics. Displays top sites and posters, demographic breakdowns, location and keywords. The free version shows a sample of results and there are various paid plans available.
76. Klout: measures influence through engagement on Twitter, assigning a score of 1-100. Klout’s also lets you search for influencers on specific topics, although the search functionality is somewhat limited.
77. Onalytica: Searches the nouns in your content, compares it to 12 months of Tweets and suggests relevant influencers based on the correlation. The algorithm suggests 50 influencers, although you will want to double check the results for relevancy.
78. Followerwonk: Focuses on Twitter analytics. Allows you to search bios, location, authority, and number of followers, helping you to connect with influencers. You can compare your stats with those of your competitors, allowing you measure your successes and find influencers you should be following. Has a free account option.
79. Twitter analytics tool: It is a simple but useful tool to assess how you are doing on Twitter. It gives you a decent pallet of stats, such as profile visits, mentions, followers and tweet impressions. It also shows you your top performing tweets for each month.
80. Facebook Insights: Facebook insights provides a similar functionality to Twitter analytics, this gives you stats on your pages post reach, engagement and likes. You can also add your competitor’s pages to your ‘Pages to Watch’ list, so you can discover their engagement stats as well.
81. Social Analytics: Social Analytics is a really handy and easy to use chrome extension which gives you social share stats on any page, to see how popular that page is on social media.
82. Kred: A good entry level tool for those new to influencer marketing. Assigns a score to influencers, based on their mentions, retweets, replies and follows and their willingness to post other’s content. You can get one free year by sending a tweet.
83. Mention: Mention is a handy tool that lets you monitor keywords across various sites. You can ask Mention to track references to your brand name or other specific keywords, and it will populate a feed with mentions from the web. Hook up your own social media account info, and Mention makes it easy to take action and respond to your brand/keyword mentions. Mention offers a 14 day free trial, and starts at $30/month.
84. Nutshell Mail: Nutshell Mail is a free tool from Constant Contact that delivers a summary of your social media activity across various networks straight to your inbox. It’s nothing revolutionary, but it is definitely a helpful monitoring tool, especially for those with hefty workloads who want a nice summary of their social media action dished up to them.
85. Facebook Ads Compass: The Facebook Ads Compass will review your page, judging the usual metrics (engagement, reach, return on ad spend, etc.). You can even see where you’re making the most money in terms of gender, age, and more.
86. Bit.ly: In essence, bit.ly is a URL shortener, transforming ugly eyesore URL strings into cute little clickables. However, it can be a heck of lot more if you let it. Sign up for a free account, and Bit.ly will save your “bitlinks,” let you organize your bitlinks into “bundles,” and even track click analytics.
87. Tweriod: Tweriod tracts you tweets and gives you a report detailing the best times for you to tweet you content for optimal exposure and engagement. This is great info to have, especially when used in conjunction with a social media post scheduling tool. And yup – it’s totally free.
88. IceRocket: This is a free tool to help monitor specific keywords. IceRocket offers a trend report, which is useful. All you have to do is enter the terms you want to see mentioned and you’ll get a graph illustrating how many posts a day the term appears as well as the total amount of blog posts over a 30 day period.
89. Social Clout: SocialClout gathers relevant conversations and metrics from social web, blogs, forums, etc., helps to monitor your brand’s mention across Facebook and Twitter in real-time, and provides insightful reports with metrics that can help you understand your social health and take informed decisions.
90. Agora Pulse: Agora Pulse works like a Facebook page barometer. Get to know if you are beating Facebook EdgeRank, if your pages are performing above or below average, and which metrics require your attention.
91. Tweetcaster: Specifically designed for Twitter, the mobile app Tweetcaster is great for monitoring activity. Tweets, favorites, retweets, lists and mentions are all categorized into separate tabs while filters allow you to filter through photos or video content. Tweets can be saved as drafts and then sent at a later date.
92. Manage Flitter: Manage Flitter is a Twitter tool to help you cut out your followers that aren’t pulling their weight. Unfollow users who don’t follow you back, filter out users who never customized their profile photo (a good sign of a bot), and remove followers whose accounts remain inactive. [limited free options and paid options]
93. Facebook Advertising Opportunity Calculator: This tool will analyze your business page to understand exactly how much your online visibility would increase if you enabled paid ads. Even better, it’ll help you understand exactly how much cash you’d need to allocate to do this successfully.
94. NeedTagger: NeedTagger is another useful Twitter tool that uses custom filters and keyword digging to show you which Twitter users are the most likely to be interested in your service or product offering. A very informed way to hunt down new Twitter contacts!
95. Tint: Nothing revolutionary here, but it’s a great tool to aggregate all the conversations happening about your brand. Tint ain’t cheap though – even the most basic account will cost you $250/month (with the most expensive plan being $1000/month). There’s a free version, but it’s pretty limited – you can aggregate content you’ve posted and not much else.
96. Goo.gl link shortener – Another awesome link shortener from Google. Also contains tracking and analytics. Totally free.
Social Media Management
97. Latergram: Use this tool to manage your Instagram marketing. Schedule and manage your Instagram posts. Upload posts from your desktop, tablet, iPad or Android.
98. SocialRank: This handy tools lets users identify, organize, and manage your followers on Twitter and Instagram by sorting and filtering. Find out which of your followers are the most engaged.
99. Spruce: Make Twitter ready images in seconds. Type your message. Find the perfect photo. Get a beautiful custom image, perfectly sized for Twitter. Choose from millions of free images. Type your text, choose from thousands of public photos or upload your own, and post directly to Twitter or Facebook. Free to use.
100. Riffle: This tool help you find and connect with Twitter social influencers quickly and easily. Use the tool to get Twitter engagement, interest and activity analytics in real time. This type of data allows you to engage with influencers while they’re active on Twitter.
101. Hootsuite: This is one of the top social media management tools available. Hootsuite lets you manage all of your social networks from one platform. Use Hootsuite to schedule updates, engage your audience, and grow your brand. There’s also an analytics feature available.
102. Sprout Social: SproutSocial allows you to easily schedule and post messages to multiple social networks by bringing all messages into a streamlined inbox. Also allows collaboration and custom reports. Offers a 30-day free trial, the basic package is $59/month.
103. BufferApp: It tracks follower activity to recommend the best times to post, has a free image tool, and a user-friendly interface to allow easy scheduling. A free account is available for individuals, while paid accounts start from $10/month.
104. Over-graph: Over-graph allows you to post to multiple Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, LinkedIn and Instagram accounts from one easy interface. You can reply to audience comments from within the dashboard. It offers engagement analytics, and an emailed report is available. A free account is offered.
105. Crowdbooster: Ideal for small businesses as prices start at $9/month for one Facebook and one Twitter page, after the 30-day free trial. It will recommend optimal times and allow you to schedule posts. It also doubles as an influencer tool, showing your most active fans.
106. BuzzBundle: Covers a broad range of social networks. You can publish posts, comments or replies across channels without leaving the dashboard. Allows multiple personas to be set up for different departments to post. The free account gives you a sample of mentions, a paid Pro account is $199.
107. Clear Voice: A content tool for planning, managing and publishing your content. Set deadlines and publish dates, which your team creates and edits within the app. Also includes a marketplace to match you to freelance writers.
108. Amplifr: As for social automation tool, give Amplifr a try. It’s a publication and analytics app that works with social and messenger channels (Telegram for now). It suggests best time slots, highlights your best performing content right in the scheduler view, sends you weekly and monthly analytics reports, automatically UTM-tags and shortens all your links (and integrates nicely into Google Analytics).
109. Yoono: The Yoono Chrome extension is a simple, yet powerful tool for managing updates across Twitter, Facebook, Foursquare, LinkedIn, YouTube, Flickr, GoogleBuzz, Yammer, Friendfeed and MySpace, simultaneously. The ‘Share’ feature makes it really easy to share content across platforms and with the Group feature you can create groups by adding contacts from any channel. Very handy.
110. Post Planner: Post Planner is an app on Facebook that helps you post consistently on Facebook. It shows you trending content in your niche so that you can post it, and your fans can share it. It also helps you target fans in a specific location or demographic. It also provides analytics data on your posts.
111. SocialPilot: It’s the user-friendly tool for scheduling multiple posts across Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Tumblr. It also allows Facebook personalized branding and Bulk scheduling features so you can easily share your post on Facebook with your own brand name. However, it offers higher queue limit so easy for you to plan your promotion in advanced with less than 30 minutes.
112. Helprace: Helprace is a helpdesk and community feedback management tool (most useful for businesses). It can be used to move your social media communication on your turf (your website) where you can manage and interact with your prospects easier.
113. Bundle Post: The tool is paid, but has a free 30–day trial period. Bundle Post is a content curation tool that aggregates and schedules social media content efficiently. Search, edit and schedule with a browser plugin or social media dashboard, then add hashtags. Keep your audience engaged and get results.
114. Socialoomph: Boosting your social media productivity doesn’t have to be a manual time-consuming process. Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn, Tumblr, RSS feeds, blogs, Plurk, and App.net – easily schedule updates, and monitor social media activity with Socialoomph.
115. MavSocial: MavSocial is a social media visual content management & publishing platform. The tool removes the hassle, saves its users time, and makes their online activities more successful. MavSocial tackles problems and provide solutions that other social media software platforms don’t address for free. It now includes Instagram scheduling via an app and also the ability to repeat publish groups of posts at times/days you want.
116. Everypost: Everypost allows you to post to multiple social media platforms from your mobile device. It comes with a built-in URL shortener with the option of posting photos and videos directly from your device. Everypost also has a comprehensive desktop social media management tool which is free for individuals with limited features. It comprises of a visual content curator tool, a social media workflow, post customization, collaboration, scheduling and publishing and social analytics.
117. Commun.it: Commun.it has been dubbed as the customer relationship management tool for Twitter. As well as being an analytics tool and Tweet scheduler, Commun.it uniquely identifies industry influencers, supporters and prospects for you. It then helps you stay in touch and engage with those people by notifying you about important contact points and prompting you to re-engage if you neglect a relationship.
118. Sociota: Sociota is a social media management, monitoring, scheduling and analysis tool that helps you manage your Facebook and Twitter accounts.
Stock Images and Videos
119. Mazwai: This website has free creative commons high definition video clips and footages. Choose the video you want. Click the download button and save the video. The only requirement is that you must credit the video producer.
120. Unsplash: Choose from thousands of free high-resolution photos. There’s no restriction on how you can use the photos. There are 10 new photos added every day.
121. Picography: The selection of free hi-resolution photos isn’t very large, but the images are great and the quality is amazing. There’s no restriction on how you can use the photos.
122. New Old Stock: This is a great collection of vintage photos from various public archives. The photos are free of any known copyright restrictions.
123. Pixabay: My favourite site for free images is Pixabay: Free Images https://pixabay.com/ Over 560000 high quality photos, illustrations, and vector graphics. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
Did I miss any free social media tools you think small business owners might find useful? Please add them to the comments.